US construction spending up slightly 0. Thanks to their reliability and low cost, those cards are widely used for electronic wallet, access control, corporate ID cards, transportation or stadium ticketing. These symbols will be available during your session for use on applicable pages. A tender offer often occurs when an investor proposes buying shares from every shareholder of a publicly traded company for a certain price at a certain time.
Acquirers include hedge funds , private equity firms, management-led investor groups, and other companies. As the closing date nears and issues are resolved, the spread typically narrows. Tender offers provide several advantages to investors. For example, investors are not obligated to buy shares until a set number are tendered, which eliminates large upfront cash outlays and prevents investors from liquidating stock positions if offers fail.
Acquirers can also include escape clauses, releasing liability for buying shares. For example, if the government rejects a proposed acquisition citing anti-trust violations, the acquirer can refuse to buy tendered shares. In many instances, investors gain control of target companies in less than one month if shareholders accept their offers; they also generally earn more than normal investments in the stock market.
Although tender offers provide many benefits, there are some noted disadvantages. A tender offer is an expensive way to complete a hostile takeover as investors pay SEC filing fees, attorney costs, and other fees for specialized services. It can be a time-consuming process as depository banks verify tendered shares and issue payments on behalf of the investor. Also, if other investors become involved in a hostile takeover, the offer price increases, and because there are no guarantees, the investor may lose money on the deal.
What is 'Tender Offer' A tender offer is an offer to purchase some or all of shareholders' shares in a corporation. Learn about the potential benefits that the debt tender offer by Cliffs Natural Resources had for the company's balance sheet and income statement.
A stock buyback, or repurchase, occurs when a company buys its own shares off the market and therefore reduces the amount of stock outstanding. It was first announced at the Rump session of Eurocrypt The new attack allows to recover the secret key of any sector of MIFARE Classic card via wireless interaction, within about queries to the card.
It can then be combined with the nested authentication attack in the Nijmegen Oakland paper to recover subsequent keys almost instantly. Both attacks combined and with the right hardware equipment such as Proxmark3, one should be able to clone any MIFARE Classic card in not more than 10 seconds.
This is much faster than previously thought. In , a new card-only attack was discovered that is also able to recover the secret keys from such hardened variants.
Furthermore, the paper's authors included hardware schematics for their original cloning device, and have since made corresponding software, firmware and improved hardware schematics publicly available on GitHub.
Power Analysis and Templates in the Real World",  they stated that system integrators should be aware of the new security risks that arise from the presented attacks and can no longer rely on the mathematical security of the used 3DES cipher. Hence, in order to avoid, e. NXP also stated "Also, the impact of a successful attack depends on the end-to-end system security design of each individual infrastructure and whether diversified keys — recommended by NXP — are being used.
If this is the case, a stolen or lost card can be disabled simply by the operator detecting the fraud and blacklisting the card, however this operation assumes that the operator has those mechanisms implemented.
This will make it even harder to replicate the attack with a commercial purpose. This can be overcome by having a copy of the register online so that values can be analysed and suspect cards hot-listed.
For systems based on contactless smartcards e. Typically, to minimize costs, systems integrators will choose a relatively cheap card such as a MIFARE Classic and concentrate security efforts in the back office.
Additional encryption on the card, transaction counters, and other methods known in cryptography are then employed to make cloned cards useless, or at least to enable the back office to detect a fraudulent card, and put it on a blacklist. Systems that work with online readers only i. Another aspect of fraud prevention and compatibility guarantee is to obtain certification called to life in ensuring the compatibility of several certified MIFARE product-based cards with multiple readers.
With this certification , the main focus was placed on the contactless communication of the wireless interface, as well as to ensure proper implementation of all the commands of MIFARE product-based cards.
The certification process was developed and carried out by the Austrian laboratory called Arsenal Research. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article contains content that is written like an advertisement. Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links , and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view.
August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Parts of this article those related to smartphone types need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 11 August Archived from the original on University of Virginia, C. Little Security, Despite Obscurity". Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 25 September Slides presented at the rump session of Eurocrypt conference. The freely programmable platform can be used to emulate and virtualize cards perfect clones including the UID , for practical penetration tests in RFID environments, or serve as a passively operated NFC device, e.
Archived from the original on 21 February Archived from the original PDF on News and Press releases". Retrieved from " https: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from February Articles with dead external links from November Articles with permanently dead external links Webarchive template wayback links CS1 Italian-language sources it Articles with a promotional tone from August All articles with a promotional tone Wikipedia articles in need of updating from December All Wikipedia articles in need of updating All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with unsourced statements from October Views Read Edit View history.
Argentina Córdoba , Mendoza , Salta. Means of payment for urban transport and as of payment for public bicycles and parking meters. Adelaide Metro network Bus, Train and Tram . Greencard simplifies public transport by acting like a digital wallet.
Used on buses and the metro. Widely used across the Transperth public transport in metropolitan Perth, as well as the regional town bus services. Used for public bus, train and ferry services. Is valid on all bus, rail, light rail and government ferry services in Sydney and surrounding areas such as Central Coast. The RioCard can be used on all modes of public transport within Rio- bus, ferry, subway and train.
However it can only be used a maximum of eight times a day. Canada Montréal , Québec and Québec , Québec. SMT- Used on the bus, rapid transit, taxibus and paratransit in Montreal.
RTC- used for bus servies, bus rapid transit and paratransit in Quebec. Carte Solo- used for the commuter rail and express bus service in Greater Montreal. Used on the Metrobus Transit system. Canada Toronto , Ottawa and Hamilton, Ontario. Used on various public transport systems in the greater Toronto and Hamilton Area and Ottawa. Buses, trains, rapid transit and streetcars.
Used for public transit TransLink. Used on the Winnipeg Transit system. Valparaíso Metro uses a this card as unique payment method. Chile Santiago de Chile. Metro de Santiago, Transantiago . Can be used on the subway, buses, taxis and in some cooperating retailers and restaurants. Can be used for travel on the subway, cable cars, some bus routes and in the near future for the tram.
Can be used for travel on all public transport networks in Zagreb. Also entitles you to get discounts at over locations such as the museum and zoo. Successor of Opencard, used mostly for public transport in Prague, can be also used in municipal libraries.
It cannot be used as electronic wallet - for parking - as its predecessor. Card is issued by DPMP a. Transport company of Pardubice , can also be used as a ticket to local theatre, and used by many schools in Pardubice for student IDs.
Can be used for travel on trams, buses, trolleybuses in Tallinn, as well as other towns inside the country. Can be used with all forms of public transport systems within Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Used in municipal transport metro, bus and while traveling by Rike-Narikala ropeway.
Used for public transport, Metro and Bus - Tehran Metro. Used for public transport Metro and Bus and low value payments such as bakeries - Mashhad Metro. Used for train transport for Iarnród Éireann.
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