Ces industries ont permis de créer des emplois et de générer des profits en divertissant ou plutôt, en occupant le temps libre. En , la valeur de Ioukos est estimée à 27 milliards de dollars, soit une multiplication par 75 par rapport au prix d'achat lors de cette vente controversée. Ce projet n'a pas vu le jour.
This recall only affects vehicles equipped with Takata airbags released after the year in North America. The airbags were manufactured by Takata automotive manufacturing.
Toyota is offering a free repair to all affected vehicles worldwide. In , Toyota entered the passenger car market with its Model AA and held a competition to establish a new logo emphasizing speed for its new product line. After receiving 27, entries, one was selected that additionally resulted in a change of its moniker to "Toyota" from the family name "Toyoda". The new name was believed to sound better, and its eight-stroke count in the Japanese language was associated with wealth and good fortune.
The original logo is no longer found on its vehicles but remains the corporate emblem used in Japan. Still, no guidelines existed for the use of the brand name, so "TOYOTA", which was used throughout most of the world, led to inconsistencies in its worldwide marketing campaigns. To remedy this, Toyota introduced a new worldwide logo in October to commemorate the 50th year of the company, and to differentiate it from the newly released luxury Lexus brand.
The logo made its debut on the Toyota Celsior and quickly gained worldwide recognition. The three ovals in the new logo combine to form the letter "T", which stands for Toyota. The overlapping of the two perpendicular ovals inside the larger oval represents the mutually beneficial relationship and trust between the customer and the company while the larger oval surrounding both of these inner ovals represents the "global expansion of Toyota's technology and unlimited potential for the future".
The new logo started appearing on all printed material, advertisements, dealer signage, and most of the vehicles themselves in In predominantly Chinese-speaking countries or regions using traditional Chinese characters , e. These are the same characters as the founding family's name "Toyoda" in Japanese.
In Japan, Toyota currently maintains separate dealership sales channels. Toyota's five channel dealerships in Japan chronology in Japanese. Hino products were sold at specific Hino locations and shared at Toyota Diesel Store locations after Toyota acquired the company in In , selected Japanese dealership locations were given a special designation called "Area 86" that resembled the North American Toyota network, called Scion , to sell the Toyota 86 , building on the marketing approach started with WiLL branded products.
The following is a list of all past and present models and where they were available at retail channels nationally.
Most models were exclusive to particular retail chains, while some models, like the Prius, are available at all sales channels. Toyota's management philosophy has evolved from the company's origins and has been reflected in the terms " Lean Manufacturing " and Just In Time Production , which it was instrumental in developing. Many businesses worldwide have adopted a similar approach to manufacturing. In April , Toyota adopted the "Toyota Way ", an expression of values and conduct guidelines that all Toyota employees should embrace.
Under the two headings of Respect for People and Continuous Improvement , Toyota summarizes its values and conduct guidelines with these five principles: According to external observers, the Toyota Way has four components: Toyota has long been recognized as an industry leader in manufacturing and production. Three stories of its origin have been found, one that they studied Piggly-Wiggly's just-in-time distribution system,  one that they followed the writings of W.
As described by external observers of Toyota, the principles of the Toyota Way are: Toyota has grown from its origins in Japan during the s to become a large multinational corporation. It displaced GM and became the world's largest automobile maker for the year The world headquarters of Toyota are located in its home country in Toyota City , Japan.
Its subsidiary, Toyota Financial Services sells financing and participates in other lines of business. Toyota brands include Scion and Lexus and the corporation is part of the Toyota Group. They also acquired 5. Toyota has introduced new technologies, including one of the first mass-produced hybrid gasoline-electric vehicles, the Prius, of which it has sold 2 million globally as of ,  Advanced Parking Guidance System automatic parking , a four-speed electronically controlled automatic with buttons for power and economy shifting, and an eight-speed automatic transmission.
Toyota, and Toyota-produced Lexus and Scion automobiles, consistently rank near the top in certain quality and reliability surveys, primarily J. Power and Consumer Reports  although they led in automobile recalls for the first time in In , Toyota, combined with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu Motor Company , produced 8. Toyota has a large market share in the United States, but a small market share in Europe. It also sells vehicles in Africa and is a market leader in Australia. Due to its Daihatsu subsidiary, it has significant market shares in several fast-growing Southeast Asian countries.
According to the Fortune Global , Toyota is the fifth largest company in the world. Since the recession of , it has gained market share in the United States.
Toyota's market share struggles in Europe where its Lexus brand has 0. In the first three months of , Toyota together with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu reported number one sales of 2. Toyota's brand sales had risen 9. The difference in performance was largely attributed to surging demand for fuel-efficient vehicles. Toyota was hit by the global financial crisis of as it was forced in December to forecast its first annual loss in 70 years. Akio Toyoda became the new president and CEO of the company on June 23, , by replacing Katsuaki Watanabe, who became the new vice chairman by replacing Katsuhiro Nakagawa.
Toyota's net revenue by geographical regions for the year ended March 31, In , Toyota initiated the Innovative International Multi-purpose Vehicle project IIMV to optimize global manufacturing and supply systems for pickup trucks and multipurpose vehicles, and to satisfy market demand in more than countries worldwide.
IIMV called for diesel engines to be made in Thailand, gasoline engines in Indonesia, and manual transmissions in India and the Philippines, for supply to the countries charged with vehicle production. Its first vehicle assembly plant, in Cambridge, Ontario , since , now produces Corolla compact cars, Matrix crossover vehicles, and Lexus RX luxury SUVs, with a workforce of 4, workers. In these assembly plants, the Camry and the Tundra are manufactured, among others.
Toyota marketing, sales, and distribution in the US are conducted through a separate subsidiary, Toyota Motor Sales, U. It has started producing larger trucks, such as the new Tundra, to go after the large truck market in the United States. Currently, Toyota has no plans to offer diesel motor options in its North American products, including the light-duty pickup trucks. In , Australia was one of the first countries to assemble Toyotas outside Japan.
However, in February , Toyota was the last of Australia's major automakers to announce the end of production in Australia. The closure of Toyota's Australian plant will be completed by Before Toyota, Ford and GM's Holden had announced similar moves, all citing an unfavorable currency and attendant high manufacturing costs. Toyota is the world's market leader in sales of hybrid electric vehicles , one of the largest companies to encourage the mass-market adoption of hybrid vehicles across the globe, and the first to commercially mass-produce and sell such vehicles, with the introduction of the Toyota Prius in Toyota's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle project began in , with road trials of the prototype vehicle in France and the UK in Toyota made Prius plug-in demonstration vehicles for lease to fleet and government customers.
The production version of the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid was released in Japan in January ,   followed by the United States in late February,  and deliveries in Europe began in late June During its first year in the market, a total of 27, Prius PHVs were sold worldwide,  allowing the plug-in version to rank as the second most sold plug-in electric car for Unlike the first generation model, it is available in all 50 states.
The first generation Toyota RAV4 EV was leased in the United States from to , and at the lessees' request, many units were sold after the vehicle was discontinued. In May , Toyota launched a collaboration with Tesla Motors to create electric vehicles.
The lithium metal-oxide battery and other power train components were supplied by Tesla Motors. Tesla built the electric powertrain at its plant at Tesla Factory in Fremont, California , and then shipped them to Canada. Production was limited to 2, units during a three-year period. The first 30 iQ EVs were delivered in the U.
Since , the ZEV-NET program has been serving the transport needs of the Irvine community with all-electric vehicles for the critical last mile of commutes from the Irvine train station to the UC campus and local business offices. In addition, Toyota announced that is backing away from fully electric vehicles. The company's vice chairman, Takeshi Uchiyamada, said: Toyota's project called Ha: Toyota said the car was planned for launch in about In August , Toyota announced its plans to start retail sales of a hydrogen fuel-cell sedan in California in Toyota expects to become a leader in this technology.
Toyota's first hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles to be sold commercially, the Toyota Mirai Japanese for "future" , was unveiled at the November Los Angeles Auto Show. Initially, the Mirai will only be available in California.
In , Toyota released 5, patents for free use until , hoping to promote global development of hydrogen fuel-cell technology. As of , Toyota officially lists approximately 70 different models sold under its namesake brand, including sedans, coupes, vans, trucks, hybrids, and crossovers.
Toyota first entered the pickup truck market in with the SB that was only sold in Japan and limited Asian markets. It was followed in by the RK renamed in as the Stout and in by the compact Hilux.
With continued refinement, the Hilux simply known as the Pickup in some markets became famous for being extremely durable and reliable, and many of these trucks from as early as the late s are still on the road today, some with over , miles. Extended- and crew-cab versions of these small haulers were eventually added, and Toyota continues to produce them today under various names depending on the market.
Riding on the success of the compact pickups in the US, Toyota decided to attempt to enter the traditionally domestic-dominated full-size pickup market, introducing the T for the US model year, with production ending in While having a bed at the traditional full-size length of 8 feet, the suspension and engine characteristics were still similar to that of a compact pickup. It proved to be as economical and reliable as any typical Toyota pickup, but sales never became what Toyota brass had hoped for.
It was criticized as being too small to appeal to the traditional American full-size pickup buyer. Another popular full-size truck essential, a V8 engine, was never available. Additionally, the truck was at first only available as a regular cab, though Toyota addressed this shortcoming and added the Xtracab version in mid In for the model year, Toyota replaced the T with the larger Tundra.
The Tundra addressed criticisms that the T did not have the look and feel of a legitimate American-style full-size pickup. It also added the V8 engine that the T was criticized for not having. However, the Tundra still came up short in towing capacity as well as still feeling slightly carlike.
These concerns were addressed with an even larger redesign. A stronger V6 and a second V8 engine among other things were added to the option list. The smaller Tacoma which traces its roots back to the original Hilux was also produced at the company's San Antonio facility.
Toyota-branded luxury vehicles tend to be Japan-only. In , building on a previous partnership with Yamaha Marine , Toyota created "Toyota Marine"  , building private ownership motorboats , currently sold only in Japan. A small network in Japan sells the luxury craft at 54 locations, called the "Toyota Ponam" series, and in , a boat was labeled under the Lexus brand name starting May 26, Toyota has been involved in many global motorsports series.
They also represent their Lexus brand in other sports car racing categories. Toyota also runs a driver development programme known as the Toyota Young Drivers Program, which they made for funding and educating future Japanese motorsports talent.
Toyota enjoyed success in all these motorsports categories. In , Toyota entered Formula One as a constructor and engine supplier; however, despite having experienced drivers and a larger budget than many other teams, they failed to match their success in other categories, with five second-place finishes as their best results. On November 4, , Toyota announced they were pulling out of the sport due to the global economic situation.
Toyota's nationwide driver hunt of drivers for Etios Motor Racing Series ended up with selection of 25 drivers, who will participate in the race in Toyota Racing Development TRD was brought about to help develop true high-performance racing parts for many Toyota vehicles. TRD has often had much success with their aftermarket tuning parts, as well as designing technology for vehicles used in different types of racing.
Toyota supports a variety of philanthropic work in areas such as education, conservation, safety, and disaster relief.
The Toyota USA Foundation exists to support education in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Toyota also supports a variety of work in Japan. The Toyota Foundation takes a global perspective providing grants in the three areas of human and natural environments, social welfare, and education and culture. Toyota established the Toyota Technological Institute in , as Sakichi Toyoda had planned to establish a university as soon as he and Toyota became successful.
In , Toyota showcased its trumpet-playing robot. A specific example of Toyota's involvement in robotics for the elderly is the Brain Machine Interface. Designed for use with wheelchairs, it "allows a person to control an electric wheelchair accurately, almost in real-time", with his or her mind. Toyota invests in several small start-up businesses and partnerships in biotechnology , including:.
Toyota developed an oekaki -style sewing machine called the Oekaki Renaissance, which, like others of its type, is designed to allow the user to be able to draw ideas directly onto fabric using the art of free-motion embroidery. Toyota has been a leader in environmentally friendly vehicle technologies, most notably the RAV4 EV produced from to , then to present and the Toyota Prius to present.
Toyota implemented its fifth Environmental Action Plan in The plan contains four major themes involving the environment and the corporation's development, design, production, and sales. The five-year plan is directed at the, "arrival of a revitalized recycling and reduction based society". The assessment includes, " Themes of the program consist of "Global Warming Countermeasures" and "Biodiversity Conservation. Since October , Toyota's new Japanese-market vehicle models with automatic transmissions are equipped with an Eco Drive Indicator.
The system takes into consideration rate of acceleration, engine and transmission efficiency, and speed. When the vehicle is operated in a fuel-efficient manner, the Eco Drive Indicator on the instrument panel lights up. The money will be used to fund environmental programs at the park. Japan production numbers to Citations for years are for total production and sales and Japan production and salesU.
On January 2, , an unnamed chief engineer of the Camry Hybrid , aged 45 years, died from heart failure in his bed. On February 9, , Kenichi Uchino, aged 30 years, a quality control manager, collapsed then died at work.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Japanese car manufacturer. For other uses, see Toyota disambiguation. This article needs to be updated.
Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Toyota's headquarters in Toyota City , Japan. Japan Trustee Services Bank 9. Logo until , now still used as a corporate logo. Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. First generation Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. List of Toyota vehicles. Toyota Tacoma, one of the best selling vehicles in the United States of America. List of Lexus vehicles.
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Retrieved March 19, Management of Service Businesses in Japan. Area 86 will be first stop for Toyota coupe buyers". Retrieved September 20, ISDS cannot overturn local laws unlike the World Trade Organization which violate trade agreements,   but can grant monetary damages to investors adversely affected by such laws. Because NAFTA Article waives the local remedies rule, investors are not required to exhaust local remedies before filing Chapter 11 claims.
While this fact has been amply criticized in public, proponents of ISDS tend to point out that speedy dispute resolution through ISDS is critical in modern economic environments and would be defeated by adding several instances of local remedies. On the other hand, there is no other situation in international law where a private party can sue a state without showing that the state's domestic courts are not independent or reliable.
The removal of the customary duty to exhaust local remedies, where they are reasonably available, is claimed to be a factor in the explosion of investment treaty claims since the late s, although a more obvious explanation is the explosion in the number of bilateral free trade agreements since the breakdown of the multilateral WTO Doha round in the mid s.
Much debate and criticism   has arisen concerning the impact of ISDS on the capacity of governments to implement reforms and legislative and policy programs related to public health , environmental protection and human rights.
Opponents argue that investor state claims or the threat of them inhibit the capacity of domestic governments to pass legislation addressing perfectly legitimate public concerns, such as health and environmental protection, labour rights or human rights. Proponents of ISDS argue that governments retain their regulatory ability, if the agreements in question specify that regulations protecting health, the environment, labour rights and human rights are allowed.
The Office of the United States Trade Representative challenges the notion that ISDS challenges "the sovereign ability of governments impose any measure they wish to protect labor rights, the environment, or other issues of public welfare".
Incidentally, Veolia was working with Alexandria on a World Bank -supported project to reduce greenhouse gases, not some corporate plot to exploit the people. The case — which would result, at most, in a monetary award to Veolia, not the overthrow of the minimum wage — remains in litigation.
A study found that the success rates of investors in investor-state disputes has sharply fallen over time because most legal challenges today seek compensation for regulation implemented by democracies, not expropriation by non-democracies. Opponents of ISDS argue that arbitrations are sometimes carried out in secret by trade lawyers who do not enjoy the typical safeguards of judicial independence and procedural fairness, who earn income only if a case is brought and proceeds, and who are not accountable to the public or required to take into account broader constitutional and international law human rights norms.
On the other hand, such traditional confidentiality is limited to disputes that affect the parties in question and not the broader public. However, many awards under other arbitration rules are not public and, in the case of investor-arbitration at the International Chamber of Commerce, there is a requirement for blanket confidentiality for all aspects of a case.
It is further pointed out that judges are not elected in most countries outside the US, so that "public accountability of judges" may not be considered a standard of public international law.
In any event, they say, the qualification of ISDS arbitrators matches or exceeds the qualification of most court judges. Arbitrators are appointed by both parties at dispute, so such conflicts of interest may arise on both sides. While ISDS has traditionally been confidential as any other arbitration , the general trend in the last decade has been to allow for more openness and transparency. On the other hand, there is still widespread confidentiality in the system.
However, no investment treaty allows other parties who have an interest in the dispute, other than the claimant investor and respondent government, to obtain standing in the adjudicative process.
Under the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership , the tribunals shall, subject to the consent of the disputing parties, conduct hearings open to the public. The tribunal will make available to the public documents relating to the dispute such as the notice of intent, the notice of arbitration, pleadings, memorials, minutes or transcripts of the hearings of the tribunal, where available; orders, awards and decisions of the tribunal.
In addition, third parties can and increasingly do participate in investor-state arbitration by submitting amicus curiae petitions. It also publishes the vast majority of awards with the consent of the parties. Investment disputes can be initiated by corporations and natural persons and in almost all cases, investment tribunals are composed of three arbitrators unless otherwise agreed by the parties.
As in most arbitrations , one is appointed by the investor, one by the state, and the third is usually chosen by agreement between the parties or their appointed arbitrators or selected by the appointing authority, depending on the procedural rules applicable to the dispute. If the parties do not agree who to appoint, this power is assigned to executive officials usually at the World Bank, the International Bureau of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, or a private chamber of commerce.
Other individuals cannot initiate a claim against a state under an investment treaty. Also, no individual or state can initiate a claim against a foreign investor under an investment treaty. This has led to criticisms that investor-state arbitration is not balanced and that it favours the "haves" over the "have nots" by giving foreign investors, especially major companies, access to a special tribunal outside any court.
While the arbitration process itself does not provide explicitly privileged access for larger investors over individuals or SMEs, the costs of ISDS, as in any court or arbitration system, tend to be off-putting for smaller claimants. According to a May working paper, "In terms of wins and losses, [the] U. In terms of performance with respect to developing countries, U.
This was true for the NAFTA claims against the United States in the late s, for Germany in the wake of the Vattenfall claims in the late s and also for Australia in , when confronted with the Philip Morris claim. In , the Australian government announced that it would discontinue the practice of seeking inclusion of investor state dispute settlement provisions in trade agreements with developing countries.
It stated that it:. However, the Government does not support provisions that would confer greater legal rights on foreign businesses than those available to domestic businesses. Nor will the Government support provisions that would constrain the ability of Australian governments to make laws on social, environmental and economic matters in circumstances where those laws do not discriminate between domestic and foreign businesses.
The Government has not and will not accept provisions that limit its capacity to put health warnings or plain packaging requirements on tobacco products or its ability to continue the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme In the past, Australian Governments have sought the inclusion of investor-state dispute resolution procedures in trade agreements with developing countries at the behest of Australian businesses. The Gillard Government will discontinue this practice. If Australian businesses are concerned about sovereign risk in Australian trading partner countries, they will need to make their own assessments about whether they want to commit to investing in those countries Foreign businesses investing in Australia will be entitled to the same legal protections as domestic businesses but the Gillard Government will not confer greater rights on foreign businesses through investor-state dispute resolution provisions.
Even if it were to do so, most such treaties foresee post-termination-protection for many years after the termination has become effective. An alternative way ahead may be the preservation of investor protection under public international law , including ISDS, but with more concern for transparency and the balancing of economic and non-economic interests. In this vein, Karel De Gucht , the EU commissioner in charge of negotiating International Investment Agreements declared on 18 December that future agreements shall become more transparent, shall "fully enshrine democratic prerogatives" and "explicitly state that legitimate government public policy decisions — on issues such as the balance between public and private provision of healthcare or "the European ban on chicken carcasses washed with chlorine" — cannot be over-ridden".
Also, he said, the EU "will eliminate any conflicts of interest — the arbitrators who decide on EU cases must be above suspicion". However, insisting equally on the advantages of such investment protection agreements, he states along that [they] "protect job-creating investment from discrimination and unfair treatment" and that "the task here is to find the right balance between preventing abuse and protecting investments".
Current controversies over ISDS appear driven by attempts to expand its scope to new countries and, especially, to relations between developed countries with mature court systems and democratic governments. South Africa has stated it will withdraw from treaties with ISDS clauses, and India is also considering such a position.
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